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Character Research

Now that you’ve crawled around in your character’s mind and maybe even learned a bit about your own shortcomings and issues, it’s time to learn more about what your characters do. If their job is an integral part of the screenplay, you’d better be able to convince your audience that they know it… even if the integral part is that they don’t know their job. For instance, if the point of your script is that your protagonist knows nothing of how to be a president and is completely inept at it, you would still need to know the details of that position in order to be convincing.

So let’s discuss my character, the female Pakistani special agent. First, I’m not a female, but I have spent a great deal of time with the opposite sex. I can draw on some of my past experiences to help me uncover her personality. I have a long history with brilliant, badass women.

Second, she’s a special agent. I don’t have any background in this area, so I will definitely need to do some research. The fact that she is an Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agent makes it a bit more difficult to research. I can devour all that has been published about the ISI, but most of it will be biased. The likelihood of me getting to interview someone in the ISI is pretty slim, so I’ll need to rely mostly on what I find on the Net.

Third, she’s Pakistani. I do have some friends that were born in Pakistan. I can interview them and I’m sure they can provide me more information than what I can dig up from just a Google search. But the Google search will give me some good insight, as well.

Other things I’ll want to research: monks and monasteries in Pakistan. She was raised in that environment. I’ll need to research monk’s living habits, most notably Pakistani monks. This is all stuff that will make my character more believable.

Then we throw in the Indian-born CIA agent. I’m kind of in the same boat with India as I am with Pakistan. As for the CIA part, there’s lots of information on the Internet. The likelihood of interviewing a CIA are better than an ISI agent and what I get from there I can use for my protagonist, too.

As you can see, there’s a ton of research (work) that goes into writing a screenplay. It’s not just sitting down in front of a computer and banging our scene after scene until you’re done. If you want your characters to have depth, you need to put in the work, dig deep, research! Until next week, keep writing!

Developing Your Characters

characterdvlpt.jpg
Last week I mentioned that we would be working on the outline of the story this week. I lied. What I really meant to say was we would be developing our characters. This process can take a bit of time. You might already have an idea of your main characters’ attributes in your head, and you might even know how they interact with some of the other characters. But what do you really know about your characters?

When developing your characters, but sure to dissect them, find out why they are they way they are. What happened in their past that created their current personality traits? What knowledge do they have and where did they get it? What kind of childhood did they have? What drives them? What scares them? What is their flaw? What keeps them from achieving their goal?

Remember the Joseph Campbell’s eight character archetypes? Which one matches your character? After you’ve decided which character archetype you’re working with, determine the character’s personality traits. I use the Pearson-Marr Archetype Indicator (PMAI). This will help you create a backstory for your characters. Just for fun (and as an example) let’s dissect a well-known protagonist:

He is an orphan, one of the most common PMAI archetypes. He is un-
trusting due to being orphaned at a tender age. He speaks multiple
languages because his family traveled throughout Europe; his father
was a Vickers armaments company representative. He learned navi-
gation and seamanship skills in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve.
He was raised by his aunt and was expelled from Eton College at the
age of 12 for inappropriate conduct with one of the school’s maids.
He lost his virginity at the age of 16 during his first trip to  Paris. He
seeks safety and is afraid of being abandoned, which keeps him from
creating any real lasting relationships.

Any ideas who this character might be? If you said Bruce Wayne, you have horrible deduction skills! Either that or you really need to brush up on your knowledge of film and literature. Of course this is James Bond. Although these facts are not revealed in the first film (or novel), they do help develop his character. The more you know about your characters the more depth you give them.

You don’t need to breakdown every character this way. You don’t need to know the motivation of the busboy that spills water on the villain. Secondary characters are just that, secondary. But you should breakdown all of your main characters in this fashion. Give them depth. Give them three dimensions. Make them relatable! This process will most likely take more than just one week, especially if writing isn’t your day job. Until next week, keep writing!

Progression of a Logline

frustrated-writer1

What is a logline? It’s one sentence (on rare occasions 2) that succinctly sums up your entire script… perfectly. And if we’re following the rules, keep it to about 30 to 35 words. Sounds easy, right? Most writers find that it is one of most difficult things to write. How can I sum up my entire script, all the nuances, all the action, all the heartstring pulls in just one 30 word sentence?! You don’t. You keep it to the inciting incident, the protagonist, the objective of the protagonist, and the stakes.

I’ve mentioned in a previous blog the template for creating a decent logline given by Blake Snyder. The problem with this template is that it makes your logline entirely too long, but it’s a good place to start. For more tips and templates on creating a perfect logline, read this article by screenwriter Noam Kroll.

Now that we’ve gotten that out of the way, let me document the many iterations of my logline. I have not yet written my story, but I do have a vague outline. This is good for having a solid idea of what your film is about. This will greatly help you in creating your logline. If you can’t come up with a decent logline, then your story isn’t completely formed yet. Here is the first attempt at my logline:

When cargo disappears along Pakistan’s trade route, a brash ISI spy must team up with an India-born CIA agent to capture an international terrorist before he starts World War III.

I joined a couple of writing groups to help me with my logline, just to get some feedback from other screenwriters. I’ve posted links to those groups below. The first comments I received were: What’s the cargo? Is it nuclear? Biological? And what’s ISI? Is that like ISIS? Not just from one person, but multiple people. After reevaluating my choice in words, I realized that the cargo was not important to my story and I needed to make sure it was understood what an ISI spy was all about. Insert, my next attempt:

Investigating thefts along a trade route, A Pakistani special agent finds she must partner with an India-born CIA agent to capture an international terrorist before he starts World War III.

If you can, try to get second opinions from folks other than the one’s that provided feedback the first time. Don’t eliminate the first group; just make sure to get other opinions on the new iterations. My next comments were as follows: What are the personal stakes for the protagonist? Be more descriptive. My first thought was, World War III seems like pretty high stakes, but I’ll see what I can do. Then it dawned on me, it really wasn’t personal for my protagonist. Coming up, third re-write:

Investigating possible terrorist activity to prevent World War III, A brash Pakistani special agent must set aside her trust issues to work with an India-born CIA agent or risk losing both her career and country.

Now it was personal! Now we see that, not only does my hero have trust issues, but she’s being forced to work with someone from a country of which she is at odds with. And she’s brash on top of it? Personal. Descriptive. It’s starting to come together, but it’s still not quite right. And it’s pushing the limits of the word count. Time to tighten it up:

A brash Pakistani special agent investigating possible terrorist activity must set aside her trust issues to work with an India-born CIA agent to prevent World War III.

That’s it! Right? I check one last time with my group. It feels a little flat. The trusting issue is descriptive of the protagonist, what’s the physical hurdle she has to overcome? “To prevent World War III?” That’s a bit cliché, don’t you think? Damn it! You’re right. So I think long and hard, what’s the obstacle for my hero? This is what I finally came up with:

A brash, untrusting Pakistani special agent is forced to partner with an India-born CIA agent to stop a relentless and unstable international terrorist from plunging the entire world into war.

Boom! That’s it! Now that’s a logline that’ll grab you by the… throat. And it’s right in the 30-word sweet spot. Hopefully this demonstrated progression will help you when it’s time for you to create your logline. I did have a little extra time and toyed around with a few story title ideas. Let me know which is your favorite:

Entangled in a World of Deceit

Revolutionary Deceit

Universal Truths and Deceit

 

This week I’ll be working on character development. Until next week, keep writing!

 

As promised, here are links to the groups I joined:

Screenwriter’s Treefort

Logline Centeral

Script Advice Writer’s Room

 

A Screenplay: From Conception to Submission

Now that the majority of the screenplay contests and fellowships have ended, it’s a great time to start your next project. As I’ve mentioned before, you should always be working on at least one project if not multiple projects at a time. And the time between submissions is the perfect time to start a new project. If you’re wondering how long it would take for a novice/amateur writer to conceive a story, complete the screenplay, submit it to consultants, eventually to contests/fellowships in order to get it seen by as many potential producers as possible and maybe get it optioned, then this is the blog for you!

I have a concept for a new film in my head. I’m going to document in this blog each week the steps I take and the progress I make to get the screenplay completed and submitted to contests. I will not be using any of my contacts to move it forward. This will be purely a demonstration of how long it might take for you, the beginning screenwriter, to come up with a plausible storyline, write a screenplay, have it reviewed by professionals, and then ultimately submit it to contests.

This week I’ll spend crafting my logline. A whole week just to write a logline? Yes. If you’re a beginner, and even if you’re not, you most likely have a day job, which doesn’t allow you more than a couple of hours a day to spare on writing. Take those couple of hours each day and work tirelessly on your logline. Perfect it. Don’t be afraid to test out your logline. Read to your friends. Ask for their opinion. When making conversation standing in line a Starbucks, ask the stranger in front of you what they think of your logline. Try to stick with your film demographic. You don’t want to ask grandma and grandpa what they think of your story idea if you’re aiming it at 18 to 24 year olds.

If you feel that you’ve got the perfect logline and there are still days left in the week, then toy around with some movie titles for your script. You might have the perfect one already picked out, but take some time and see what other titles might pop out of that creative brain. Throw those out at your friends and strangers in line along with your logline. See which one gets the most attention. This is exactly what I’m going to do this week. Come back next week to see how it goes.

Keep writing!

Perfecting Your Pitch

Your script is complete. You’ve done rewrite after rewrite and you’ve finally gotten it to where you feel comfortable with shopping it around. Now you need to work on your pitch. You should have a couple different variations of your pitch ready to fire off at any given moment. You should have an “elevator pitch” and your standard pitch.

What’s an elevator pitch? It’s a quick synopsis of your script that you can rattle off to an executive in about 1.5 to 3 minutes. Example: while riding in the elevator. Executives and producers are busy. They don’t have time for your 10 minute break down. Hell, they eat their lunch in less time. Now I want you to keep in mind… I’m not telling you to jump in an elevator with Spielberg or Bruckheimer and vomit your pitch all over them. I’m saying if the opportunity arises where you’ve started a conversation with someone and you happen to mention that you’ve written a script and they ask, “What’s it about?”, you’d better have a short pitch ready to spit.

If you’ve gotten lucky enough to actually be invited to pitch your story in someone’s office, this is where the standard pitch comes in. Typically you’ll be scheduled 10 minutes. Some may schedule longer, but always be prepared for a 10-minute pitch. Very important: Do NOT have 10 minutes worth of pitch. Keep it to five minutes and give yourself time for them to ask you questions. “What kind of questions are they gonna ask, Tony?” Questions you will not be prepared to answer! In all seriousness they will ask you questions about your main character such as, “Why do we care about him/her?” They may ask you about your setting and why does it need to take place there. But they will always, without fail, ask you a question you will not be prepared to answer. Take it in stride, don’t take too much time to think about it, and let it fly. You will most definitely think of a better answer after you leave the office, but the important thing is not to let it rattle you.

Practice pitching your script in front of a camera. Watch the playback. Listen objectively. Rehearse it, but please try your best not to sound rehearsed. I’m an actor with a background in door-to-door sales (keep that under your hat) so I’ve got a bit of an edge with it comes to making my pitch not sound rehearsed. The trick is to make it sound as though you are describing it to your best friend. That’s where the camera comes it. If you play it back and you don’t believe the words falling out of your face, neither will the producer. Practice on your friends. Hell, practice on strangers. If you can get a perfect stranger interested while waiting in line at Starbucks, then you’re off to a great start.

Key points to have in your pitch, make sure you cover the character and story arc. Just touch on the highlights, you don’t need to cover every scene. Remember you’ve only got 10 minutes and in most cases less than 3. Don’t forget the hook. There’s gotta be a hook. Don’t give them the ending right from the start. Let them ask you. You want them to ask questions. It shows they’re interested. Try to be prepared. Inevitably you won’t be, but don’t let that deter you from making the effort. Flying by the seat of your pants won’t help you in this moment. Until next week, keep writing!

Is Your Screenplay Protected?

Practice safe screenwriting! Once you’ve finished your screenplay make sure you’re protected. “But Tony, how do I know for sure that I’m protected?” That’s an excellent question. In this article I will discuss the ways writers have attempted to protect their work, what has been successful, and what hasn’t. If you want to be certain that no one will steal your work, fear not. You’re more likely to win the lottery. Which I guess if your work is covered, it could be just like winning the lottery. So pay attention!

You may have heard of the “poor man’s copyright” where you send yourself a copy of your work via the United States Postal Service in order to prove ownership. While that may help keep the Post Office in business, it does very little to protect your work. It won’t hold up in a court of law. However, back in 1978 copyright legislation was passed that stated once a work is created and “fixed” in some recognizable way (saving it on your computer with a “created” date stamp) it automatically marks that work as officially yours! The bad news? That doesn’t mean squat in a court of law either when it comes to statutory damages. If you want someone to pay for using your work without permission, you need something more substantial.

“So then I should register my script with the WGA?” Unfortunately the WGA doesn’t do much to protect you either. It’s kind of like using a sandwich baggie and a twist tie instead of a condom. The WGA will provide an employee to vouch for you in court, but it still won’t help in collecting money from those who stole your work. The biggest reason people use the WGA is because it’s cheaper than buying a copyright, but not by that much.

“Then I should register a copyright on my script?” Absolutely! A copyright with the government protects your work here in the states as well as outside the U.S. A copyright means that you’ll get money if you can prove that someone stole your work. “What do you mean prove?” Well, I mean you’ll have to prove that the people or business that produced the work that you claim to be yours at some point had access to your work. If you can’t prove that, then you’ll have to prove that your story is identical to the one that got produced… without a shadow of a doubt. Read Jim Cirile’s story to get a better understanding.

To tie this all up in a neat little bow, once you’ve typed your script into your computer and saved it, you have proof that it’s yours. Registering with the WGA (East or West) affords you a tiny bit more protection (read “hardly any”). Registering a copyright gives you the most protection, but just like with sex, don’t go sliding it in anywhere. Know whom you’re giving it to and keep records. It’ll come in handy if you need to go to court. Until next week, keep writing!

How To Write Great Dialogue

As some of you already know, I fancy myself to be pretty talented with writing dialogue, hence the name of this blog. There are three well-known screenwriters whom I believe to excel in the area of dialogue: Quentin Tarantino, Aaron Sorkin, and Joss Whedon. Writing great dialogue is an art form. It is often what is not said that says the most. These three have mastered that art form.

I’ve written a previous blog that talked about “on-the-nose” dialogue. This is when a character speaks exactly what is on his mind. There are times when this is appropriate. For instance in a comedy, but most times it makes for dull and lifeless scenes. Great writing consists of subtext and innuendo to create not only a more enjoyable read, but more enjoyable for a viewing audience. I’m going to pick scenes from each of these writers to give you an example of what I’m talking about.

Let’s start with Tarantino. This is the scene from Pulp Fiction where Mia and Vincent arrive back at Marcellus Wallace’s house after Mia has just received a shot of adrenaline after ODing on heroine. Vincent and Mia are making a deal not to let Marcellus know about the incident, then:

 

                                               MIA

You still wanna hear my “FOX FORCE

FIVE” joke?

 

Vincent turns around.

 

                                     VINCENT

Sure, but I think I’m still a little

too petrified to laugh.

 

                                     MIA

Uh-huh. You won’t laugh because it’s

not funny. But if you still wanna

hear it, I’ll tell it.

 

                                    VINCENT

I can’t wait.

 

                                     MIA

Three tomatoes are walking down the

street, a poppa tomato, a momma

tomato, and a little baby tomato.

The baby tomato is lagging behind

the poppa and momma tomato. The poppa

tomato gets mad, goes over to the

baby tomato and stamps on him –

(stamps on the ground)

– and says: catch up.

 

They both smile, but neither laugh.

 

                                     MIA

See ya ’round, Vince.

 

Mia turns and walks inside her house.

 

               CLOSEUP – VINCENT

 

After Mia walks inside. Vincent continues to look at where

she was. He brings his hands to his lips and blows her a

kiss. Then exits FRAME leaving it empty. WE HEAR his Malibu

START UP and DRIVE AWAY.

 

                                                             FADE TO BLACK

 

This interaction speaks volumes of their relationship. All Mia does is tell a stupid joke, but the subtext is, “I trust you. I’ve got your back, too.” But the dialogue that’s exchanged is much more entertaining than those two sentences.

Joss Whedon is more of a television writer than film, although he’s got a couple good films under his belt. Here’s a scene from the TV show FireFly in which Mal, the lead, takes on a favor for Inara, a professional companion and a woman with which Mal has had past relations. He still pines for her, and she for him, but they attempt to keep things professional. Inara is speaking with her friend when Mal walks into her room:

 

Inara touches the screen. Nandi’s image FREEZES there. Inara sits there

quietly contemplative for a beat. Then:

 

INARA (cont’d)

I suppose you heard most of that?

 

Mal appears, peaking around the corner at the entrance.

 

MAL

Only because I was eavesdropping.

(then, no bullshit)

Your friend sounds like she’s in a

peck of trouble.

 

INARA

She is. And there’s no authority on that

moon she can go to. They’re

totally alone.

 

MAL

Some men might take advantage of that.

 

INARA

One man.

 

MAL

And she’s lookin’ for someone to come

along and explain things to him?

 

INARA

That’s essentially it, yes.

 

MAL

A whole house full of companions…

How they fixed for payment?

 

INARA

They’re not companions.

(then)

They’re whores.

 

MAL

Thought you didn’t much care for that

word?

 

INARA

It applies. They’re not registered with the Guild.

They’re —

 

MAL

— independent?

 

INARA

Yes.

(then)

If you agree to do this, you’ll be

compensated. I’ll see to it. I’ve

put a little aside…

 

MAL

You can keep your money. Won’t be

needing no payment.

 

INARA

Mal. Thank you. I’ll contact Nandi

at once.

(he smiles; she turns

away)

But you will be paid. I feel it’s

important that we keep ours strictly a

business arrangement.

 

Her back’s to him now, so she doesn’t see the stung look.

 

MAL

I’ll speak with the crew.

 

INARA

Good.

 

She never looks back. Off Mal, waiting a beat before he goes —

 

Those last few exchanges say volumes, but not because of the words they speak, because of their actions and reactions. You know exactly what is going through Mal’s mind when she turns her back. And you know exactly what why Inara doesn’t turn back around to look at him. The tension is palpable.

Lastly, we get an example from Aaron Sorkin. Sorkin is a master at witty banter. He said in an interview once, “I can write pages of witty banter very quickly, then I realize I got 10 pages with no plot.”

This next scene is from The American President. Sydney is at her sister’s apartment. She has just gotten off of the phone with her friend Richard and they were discussing how Sydney had made a fool of herself earlier at the White House while speaking to the President about global warming. Richard is giving her a hard time and she has just hung up on him.

 

The TELEPHONE RINGS…

 

                                                SYDNEY

That’s gonna be Leo Solomon. He said

he’d call at nine.

 

SYDNEY picks up the phone–

 

                                                SYDNEY

(continuing;

into phone)

Hello?

 

                                                SHEPHERD

Uh, hi, is this Sydney?

 

SYDNEY doesn’t recognize the voice–

 

                                                SYDNEY

(into phone)

Leo?

 

                                                PHONE VOICE

No, this is Andrew Shepherd.

 

SYDNEY looks at BETH and rolls her eyes, then explains to

her–

 

                                                SYDNEY

Andrew Shepherd.

(back in the phone)

You’re hilarious, Richard. You’re a

regular riot.

 

And we CROSS-CUT between SYDNEY and SHEPHERD.

 

                                                SHEPHERD

Uhh…this isn’t Richard, it’s Andrew

Shepherd.

 

                                                SYDNEY

Oh, really. Well, I’m so glad you

called, because I forgot to tell

you today what a nice ass you have.

I’m also impressed that you were able

to get my phone number, considering

I don’t have a phone. Good night,

Richard.

 

SYDNEY hangs up the phone.

 

 

            INT. SHEPHERD’S PRIVATE OFFICE/THE RESIDENCE – NIGHT

 

as SHEPHERD, undaunted, dials the number again.

 

                                                SHEPHERD

(under his breath)

This used to be easier.

 

 

INT. BETH’S APARTMENT – NIGHT

 

as the PHONE RINGS.

 

                                                SYDNEY

I don’t believe this.

 

                                                BETH

You want me to deal with him?

 

                                                SYDNEY

No way. I may choke in front of

Shepherd, but Richard Reynolds I

can handle.

 

She picks up the phone.

 

                                                SYDNEY

(continuing)

Hello?

 

And we begin CROSS-CUTTING again between the two.

 

                                                SHEPHERD

Sydney?

 

                                                SYDNEY

Are you learning-impaired?!

 

                                                SHEPHERD

Listen, do me a favor. Hang up the

phone.

 

                                                SYDNEY

(beat)

What?

 

                                                SHEPHERD

Hang up the phone. Then dial 456-1414.

When you get the White House operator,

give her your name and tell her you

want to speak to the President.

 

SHEPHERD hangs up.

 

                                                             CUT TO:

 

            INT. BETH’S APARTMENT – NIGHT

 

SYDNEY’s still holding the phone and seems a little

confused…an emotion which is about to be replaced by horror

as the unbelievable into the reality.

 

                                                SYDNEY

(to herself)

This isn’t happening to me.

 

She dials.

 

                                                BETH

What’s going on?

 

                                                SYDNEY

(to herself)

It’s not possible I did this twice in

one day.

 

The OPERATOR answers.

 

                                                OPERATOR

(filtered)

Good evening, the White House.

 

SYDNEY swallows.

 

                                                OPERATOR

(continuing; filtered)

Hello?

 

                                                SYDNEY

(quietly)

My name’s Sydney Ellen Wade. I’d

like to–

 

                                                OPERATOR (O.S.)

(filtered)

The President’s expecting your call,

ma’am. I’ll put you right through.

 

                                                           CUT TO:

 

            INT. SHEPHERD’S PRIVATE OFFICE/THE RESIDENCE – NIGHT

 

He’s just opened a bottle of beer when the phone rings.

He picks up the phone–

 

                                                SHEPHERD

Hello.

 

                                                SYDNEY

Mr. President, I’m sure there’s an

appropriate thing to say at this

moment. Probably some formal apology

for the nice-ass remark would be in

order. I just don’t quite know how

to word it.

 

                                                SHEPHERD

It’s my fault. I shouldn’t have

called you at home. Should I call

you at the office tomorrow?

 

                                                SYDNEY

No, sir, of course not. I mean —

yes, you can call me anytime you want

— this is fine. Right now is fine.

When I said “of course not,” I meat

that…You know what? The hell with it

— I’m moving to another country.

 

                                                SHEPHERD

(smiling)

What did you mean when you said you

don’t have a phone.

 

                                                SYDNEY

I just moved to Washington over the

weekend, and my apartment isn’t ready

yet. This is my sister’s apartment.

Come to think of it, how did you get

this number?

 

                                                SHEPHERD

(beat)

How did I get the number. That’s a

reasonable question. I don’t know.

Probably the FBI.

 

                                                SYDNEY

(trying to pretend

it’s just another

guy on the phone)

The FBI. Sure. ‘Cause i-if you want

to find someone and you’re the

president, that’s who you would call.

 

                                                SHEPHERD

You know who else is good at that?

 

                                                SYDNEY

The C.I.A.?

 

                                                SHEPHERD

Well, yeah, but I was thinking of the

Internal Revenue Service. They have

computer files that…Well…I should

stop stalling. As I’m sure you know,

the French have elected themselves a

new president, and we’re having a formal

state dinner at the White House, and I

was wondering — and you’re under no

obligation at all — but I thought it

might be fun… I was wondering if you

maybe wanted to go…with me, and uh…

there it is. That’s why I was calling.

 

There’s a long silence on the phone.

 

                                                SHEPHERD

(continuing)

Sydney? Sydney, Congress doesn’t

take this long to–

 

                                                SYDNEY

The President has asked me to join

him in representing our country.

I’m honored. I’m equal to the task.

And I won’t let you down, sir.

 

                                                SHEPHERD

(beat)

Sydney, this is just a dinner. We’re

not gonna be doing espionage or

anything.

 

                                                SYDNEY

No. Of course. I’m a little…uh…what

do I do? I, I mean, where do I go?

Should I meet you? Will you…

 

                                                SHEPHERD

I’m gonna have a very nice woman

named Marsha Bridgeport call you.

She’s the White House Social Director,

and she’ll help you with anything you

want. Now when she calls you and tells

you her name is Marsha Bridgeport,

it’ll help if you give her the

benefit of the doubt.

 

                                                SYDNEY

Of course.

 

                                                SHEPHERD

I’ll see you Thursday night.

 

                                                SYDNEY

Mr. President, thank you for asking

  1. Really. This is a first for me.

 

                                                SHEPHERD

Me too.

 

They hang up.

 

That’s a great exchange. Sydney is a bundle of nerves because she feels like she’s insulted the President yet again. Of course she doesn’t say, “Oh, I’m so nervous. I feel like I’m saying all the wrong words.” Instead she tries to appear that she has her shit together, which comes off exactly the opposite. Subtext tells more of her emotional disarray than her saying exactly how she is feeling.

So there you go, several lengthy examples of great dialogue with subtext. It’s dialogue that tells more than honesty. It’s witty banter that keeps the audience and the reader entertained and engaged. You won’t write this kind of dialogue in your first draft. It may flow off the fingers every now and then, but don’t try to make it this good from the start. It’ll only slow you down. That’s what rewrites are for. Until next week, keep writing!